加拿大大学论文格式:一次讲清楚!加拿大大学论文最常用的论文格式

参考文献是加拿大大学论文写作中不可或缺的组成部分,不仅为读者提供引用文献的出处,而且帮助作者在写作时可以有充分的证据来证明观点。论文写作应将文献引用与正文里其它部分一样予以重视。加拿大大学最常见的引用格式为APA、MLA和Chicago/Turabian等。下面我们就来具体了解一下这几种引用格式的使用方法。

(一)APA论文格式

APA(美国心理学会)风格起源于1929年,是一个为广泛接受的论文引用格式,特别针对社会科学领域的论文。

APA格式——文中引用

APA风格要求将三种信息包含在文本引用中:作者姓氏、发表年份以及对应页码

范例:

ccording to Jones (1998), “Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time” (p. 199).

Jones (1998) found “students often had difficulty using APA style” (p. 199); what implications does this have for teachers?

APA格式——参考文献

APA格式规定“参考文献”部分的人名必须以姓(Family name)的字母顺序来排列,以下我们以最常见的文献形式为例,为大家介绍APA格式参考文献列表的使用规则。

1) 实体书:

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

范例:Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

2) 期刊文章

格式:Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

范例:Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55, 893-896.

3) 网站

格式:Author, A. A. & Author B. B. (Date of publication). Title of page [Format description when necessary]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

范例:Eco, U. (2015). How to write a thesis [PDF file]. (Farina C. M. & Farina F., Trans.) Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/…How_to_write_a_thesis/…/Umberto+Eco-How+to+Write+… (Original work published 1977).

4)报纸

格式:Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from
https://www.homeaddress.com/

范例:Parker-Pope, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://well.blogs.nytimes.com/

5)视频

格式:Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.someaddress.com/full/url/

范例:PBSoffbook. (2013, October 3). How to be creative [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weIQIthC3Ks

(二)MLA论文格式

英文论文引用格式

MLA(现代语言协会)引用格式广泛用于人文学科,特别是在语言和文学写作方面。MLA格式已经于2016年更新至第八版本。

MLA格式——文中引用

MLA的文中引用包括作者的姓氏和所用信息的页码。

1)直接引用:

Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (263).

Romantic poetry is characterized by the “spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings” (Wordsworth 263).

2)间接引用:

单个作者:

According to Jones, MLA style is a difficult citation format for first-time learners (199).

多个作者:

对于两位作者的作品,请包括两位作者的姓氏,并使用“and”连接。(Clyde and Thomas 369)

Best and Marcus argue that one should read a text for what it says on its surface, rather than looking for some hidden meaning (9).

The authors claim that surface reading looks at what is “evident, perceptible, apprehensible in texts” (Best and Marcus 9).

对于三位或更多作者的作品,请使用第一作者的姓氏,然后使用“et al.” (Wong et al. 145)

According to Franck et al., “Current agricultural policies in the U.S. are contributing to the poor health of Americans” (327).

The authors claim that one cause of obesity in the United States is government-funded farm subsidies (Franck et al. 327).

MLA格式——参考文献

1)实体书

格式:Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. City of Publication, Publisher, Publication Date.

范例:Gleick, James. Chaos: Making a New Science. Penguin, 1987.

Gillespie, Paula, and Neal Lerner. The Allyn and Bacon Guide to Peer Tutoring. Allyn and Bacon, 2000.

2) 期刊

格式:Author(s). “Title of Article.” Title of Journal, Volume, Issue, Year, pages.

范例:Duvall, John N. “The (Super)Marketplace of Images: Television as Unmediated Mediation in DeLillo’s White Noise.” Arizona Quarterly, vol. 50, no. 3, 1994, pp. 127-53.

3)网站

格式:Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable).

范例:The Purdue OWL Family of Sites. The Writing Lab and OWL at Purdue and Purdue U, 2008, owl.english.purdue.edu/owl. Accessed 23 Apr. 2008.

Felluga, Dino. Guide to Literary and Critical Theory. Purdue U, 28 Nov. 2003, www.cla.purdue.edu/english/theory/. Accessed 10 May 2006.

(三)Chicago/Turabian 论文格式

Chicago引用格式目前已出版第16版,Chicago和它的简易版Turabian有两种代表性的形式:1)Endnotes和Bibliography 和 2)作者-日期 Author-Date 系统。Chicago格式较其他论文引用格式而言更为复杂,我们另有详细撰文介绍,推荐大家阅读:芝加哥论文格式

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